The Choice Of Words: Introductory

From “The Complete Plain Words”.

The goal of writing professional document is to convey our meaning without ambiguity and without giving unnecessary trouble to our readers. To achieve this goal, we should follow the following principles:

  • Use no more words than are necessary to express your meanings, for it you use more you are likely to obscure it and to tire your reader.
  • User familiar words rather than the far-fetched if they express your meaning equality well, for familiar are more likely to be readily understood.
  • Use words with a precise meaning rather than those that are vague, for they will obviously serve better to make your meaning clear, and in particular prefer concrete words to abstract, for they are more likely to have a precise meaning.

To clarify, the far fetched words are by definition “recherche” words, and are thought to give distinction.

However, why do people still prefer complexity to simplicity, far-fetched word to the familiar word? The following are the potential reasons:

  • For officials, there is a temptation to cling too long to outworn words and phrase.
  • Many people retain in maturity the adolescent’s love for the long word.
  • It is sometimes dangerous to be precise, such as in modern politics.
  • Cautionary cliches are used automatically without thought of what they mean.
  • There is often a need for caution, and it is a temptation to hedging and obscurity.
  • What is vague is less likely to give offense, as we believe vague is less alarming; or the natural word may be rejected because it has acquired unpleasant associations.
  • People love of show off.
  • Because of laziness, clear thinking is hard work.

Business Management: Operations As a Competitive Weapon

This article introduces the terminology used in operation management.

  • What is operations management?

The operation management is the systematic design, direciton and control of processes that transform input into services and products for the internal, and external customers.

  • Why study operation management?

Understanding the operation management helps you understand how the process you are a part of fits into the overall fabric of the business, and helps you get prepared to manage a department or a particular process in your discipline. As a manager, it is also critical for you to understand how your business partner works. Operation management helps you understand how different functions in the business work together.

  • What’s the goal of a operations manager?

The operations manager’s decisions should reflect the corporate strategy. The plns, policies and actiosn should be lined to those in other fnctional areas to support the firms goal and objectives.

  • What is process?

Every processes has a sub process, which is often called a nested process. For example, a planning processes on the department level often has subprocesses on the team level.

  • Why process view helps us better understand how the firm works?

Process view of the firm provides a much more relevant picture of the way firms actually work. Department or organization view only gives you a static view of the firm, while the process help you understand how the work and information flows through the organization. An organization is only as effective as its processes.

  • What is customer of the process?

Customers: process often provide outputs to customers. Some are external customer, who is either an end user or an intermediary buying the firm’s finished services or products. Some are internal customers, one or more employees or processes that rely on the input from other employees or processes in order to perform their work.

  • What is the supplier of the process?

Every process relies on the suppliers. There are external suppliers who are business or individuals that provide resources, services, products and materials for the firm’s short-term and long term needs. And there are internal suppliers who are employees or processes that supply important information or materials to a firm’s processes.

  • What is service and manufacturing processes and why are they important?

The service and manufacturing processes are the two major types of processes. The two are different from each other at the nature and the degree of customer contact. Manufacturing processes convert materials into goods that have a physical form we call products, while service processes tend to produce intangible, perishable outputs. On the other hand, services processes tend to have a higher degree of customer contact, ,while manufacture process tend to have less.

  • What is the value chain?

The value chain is an interrelated services of processes produces a service or products to the satisfaction of customers. Process must add value for customer.

  • Why value chain is important for operation management?

The managers should examine the processes from the perspective of the value to understand the effectiveness of the them.

  • What are the basic step of decision making?

First, recognize and clearly define the problem, then collect the information needed to analyze possible alternatives, next choose the most attractive alternative then implement the chosen alternative.

  • What is strategy decision and what is the tactic decision?

Strategy decisions are less structured and have long term consequence, tactical decisions are more structured, routine and repetitive and have short term consequences.

  • How do you leverage the strategical decision and the tactical decision?

You design new processes that have strategic implications and deeply involved in the development and organization of value chain linking external suppliers and external customers to the firm’s internal processes. Manager also involves in the tactical decision that supports the strategical decisions, including process improvement and staffing plans etc.

  • How does the global trade change the operation management?

Operation managers must now view customers, suppliers, facility locations and competitions in global terms. They need to design the operation process by involving the materials and services from all over the world. One major factor spurred the need for sound global strategies is the comparative cost advantage. For example, china for manufacture and India for services as they are sources for low cost but skilled labor.

《The One Minute Manager》Book Review

Instead of summarizing the book, I organized my learnings from the book in Q&A format to highlight how these hidden theories in the book could be applied to our daily management practice.

Part I: Book Summary

  • What is the one-minute goal setting?

Agree on your goal and see what good behavior looks like, write out each of your goals on a single sheet of paper using less than 250 words. Read and re-read each goal, which requires only a minute or so each time you do it. Take a minute every once in a while out of your day to look at your performance and see whether or not your behavior matches your goal.

  • Why do we need one-minute goal setting?

People are not motivated because they don’t know what their goal is. Most managers know what they want their people to do, but they don’t bother to tell their people in a way that they would understand. Instead, they assume they should know.

However, the one-minute goal setting only works for winners and those who have potentials. They know how to achieve these goals. So the manager’s more important job is to bring in the best person to the team.

  • What is the one-minute praising?

Tell people upfront that you are going to let them know how they are doing. Praise people immediately, tell people what they did right, and be specific. Tell people how good you fell about what they did right, and how it helps the organization and the other people who work here. Stop for a moment of silence to let them feel how good you feel. Encourage them to do more of the same. Shake hands or touch people in a way that makes it clear.

  • Why does one-minute praise work?

It’s important to help people understand how well they are doing. The number one motivator of people is feedback on results. The most important thing in training one to become a winner is to catch them doing something right.

We don’t expect people to do things right from the beginning, but with coaching and other help, they can gradually moving them towards the desired behavior.

  • What is the one-minute reprimand?

Tell people beforehand that you are going to let them know how they are doing and is no uncertain terms. In the first half of the reprimand, reprimand people immediately. Tell people what they did wrong and be specific. Tell people how you feel about what they did wrong and in no uncertain terms. Stop for a few seconds of uncomfortable silence to let them feel how you feel. On the second half, shake hands, or touch them in a way that lets them know you are honestly on their side, remind them how much you value them. Reaffirm that you think well of them but not their performance in this situation.

  • Why does one-minute reprimand work?

The one-minute reprimand works because it makes sure people hear the feedback. People become defensive and can’t hear the feedback if they are attacked or if they feel you are not with them. The one-minute reprimand asks us to focus on the behavior instead of attacking the people and always make sure people know they are still valuable.

Part II: Hidden Management Theories

  • What’s your primary goal as a people manager?

A good people manager makes people work best with each other, they produce valuable results and feel good about themselves, the organization and the other people with whom they work.

  • What is “leave alone-zap”?

“Leave alone-zap” is you leave a person alone, expecting a good performance from them, and when you don’t get it, you zap them. The end result of this style is people do as little as possible.

  • When would people get motivated?

People get motivated for many reasons. But when get motivated, they feel good about themselves. Helping people to feel good about themselves is key to getting more done.

  • People-driven or result-driven, what type of manager do you think you are?

Many thought managers either cares about results or people. Result caring managers seemed to be tough and autocratic, while people-driven managers look nice and democratic. However, in order to be effective, you need to care about both.

  • How to help people find out the solution by themselves?

Ask the team to describe to you the problems they encountered in observable and measurable terms. Sometimes people focused on attitudes or feelings, which is not helpful for clarifying the problem. Then ask them to describe what they would like to be happening, and work with them to analyze what may have caused the discrepancy between the actual and desired.

  • How to explain your intention of sharing the feedback with the team?

It is important to let people know that sharing feedback is to help them become more successful. First, let them know that it helps them understand how they are doing in their work better, then, let them know that you wanted them to succeeded and be a big help to the organization, and to enjoy their work.

  • How do you explain to the team that your interests are aligned?

Explain to the team that your success depends on their success so they understand that your interest is aligned and you are with them. Explain to them that the more consistently successful your people are, the higher you rise in the organization.

  • What do you do if your team performed well however things are not going well?

Responds to people where they are, not where you are, still praise people even when you annoyed by other things if they’ve done well.

  • How to not discourage people when sharing constructive feedback?

The key is to separate the behavior and the people. Remember that when you give constructive feedback only focus on the behavior instead of the person. Always remind people that they are valuable and worthwhile?

  • Why separating people’s behavior and they as a person is so important?

Because we are managing people, not their behavior. People are more complicated, they will become defensive if they are attacked. Your power of management style comes from you care about people. Your reprimand would not work if the people don’t feel that you are with them.

  • Do you give positive feedback to the team? Do you think it is important?

Positive feedback is as important as constructive feedback. One mistake many managers made is to focus on the negative feedback, they set the goal and wait for the people to fail.

  • Is management manipulate people?

No, manipulation is getting people to do something they are either not aware of or don’t agree to. That is why it is important to let each person know upfront what you are doing and why.

《全球猎身》从印度到全世界

身为华人从业者,无数事实提醒着我们印度移民已经占领了美国IT业。从每年反对印度IT外包公司利用H1B抽签漏洞一人多抽,到对于印度人拉邦结派搞办公室政治的愤愤不平,再到硅谷著名公司纷纷选择印度裔CEO,印度人才在IT界的统治地位是毋庸置疑的。但他们是怎样从印度一步步走向全世界的?为什么印度移民在这个领域可以取得如此辉煌的成就?

对于这些问题,我们还有印度移民通常将他们归因于:英文教育环境造成的语言优势,长期殖民地处境带来的文化相似形,印度人对于数学和工程的热情。以拥有本科以上学历的比例计算,美国的印度裔移民的教育成就确实远超所有族裔1 。但无论是语言文化的解释还是教育程度度的解释都过于粗粒度,许多问题仍然十分模糊:理工人才的培养和海外输出是一个昂贵投资,经济落后的印度是如何将这么多人培养成工程师并送到海外的?IT人才输出的产业是如何运作的?项飚在《全球猎身:世界信息产业和印度的技术劳工》一书当中为我们部分解答了这些问题。

印度移民们通过多种方式走向世界,项飚在本书中所讨论的是印度独有的猎身行业:印度人在全世界各地开办咨询公司(body shops,劳力行),从印度招收IT工人,然后根据客户企业的项目需要把这些劳动力提供给客户。猎身过程和正规的劳工输出有所不同:劳力行在没有明确工作需求的情况下用临时工作签证将劳工送至海外并闲置在板凳上以等待机会,劳力行并不单独行动而是和不同规模的职业代理公司合作将劳工输出到IT企业。项飚认为这些不同的背后是全球IT产业发展的新逻辑。

  • 猎身的政治经济学背景

印度劳工的输出有其深刻的政治和经济学背景。与我们通常的印象不同,IT产业需要大量的劳动力来完成重复性的工作,比如编写测试代码等。另一方面,IT企业的业务规模变化迅速,招聘和裁撤正式员工的成本巨大,召之即来挥之即去的工人最为理想。而从90年代开始,美国等国家出台了以吸引IT人才为目标的劳工引进政策以弥补国内技术工人的缺口。与此同时,为了保护本地劳工,减轻对政府的负担,政府对企业雇佣和解雇海外员工提出了诸多限制。在这样的条件下,IT企业面临着巨大的招聘挑战。印度猎身业正是帮助他们解决这些挑战而逐步占领市场。

劳力行首先通过板凳机制囤积大量员工以快速响应IT企业招聘变化。印度劳工行将本地招收到的IT劳工送至海外劳工行并等待机会,这一等待时期成为板凳期。海外劳工行通过各种规模的中介机构与将这些闲置员工送至IT企业。如果项目遭到裁撤或者结束,这些劳力又回归板凳。海外的劳力行们则将板凳期的工人作为廉价劳动力用作企业培训和自己的项目开发。

劳力行还提供灵活的雇佣关系帮企业降低移民劳工的政策风险。劳力行并不是简单的将雇员介绍给雇主,而是代表雇主管理工人,比如提供担保、办理领事工作签证、支付工资及和安排食宿等。工人们与他们的雇主不存在任何直接法律关系,因此雇主可以随时剪裁他们而不需要承担法律风险。

  • 猎身经济的运作方式

当然,猎身行业的运作远比上面描述的复杂,但是它们大体可以分为你三个主要部门:国内正式部门,国内非正式部门,和海外部门。其中,国内非正式部门包含劳工行、培训机构以及等待就业的IT劳工。国内的非正式部门通过猎身业务逐渐积累资本而进入到正式部门,而海外部门则因此获得大量优质廉价的劳动力。

印度的海外劳工行是由职业中介和劳力行通过分包和中介链的方式形成合作的。大部分海外IT企业只会同少数大型职业中介所合作以保证服务质量并降低管理和沟通成本。大型中介企业的优势在于他们可以通过设立专门的业务部门提升服务质量,比如通过设立专门的签证部门跟踪政策变化以保证整个劳工输出的周期稳定。从IT企业收到用工需求之后,大型职业中介将业务转包给小型劳力行,同时在中间对质量和管理加以控制以保证自身声誉。这种外包关心实际带来了中介链条的形成。

印度国内的非正式部门分为劳力行和培训机构两大部门。劳力行在本地招募员工,培训结构则通过培训使他们适合市场需求并且增值。这些劳力行一方面通过各种渠道招募劳力,另一方面经营与海外劳力行的关系。IT行业的需求变动十分迅速,这些劳力行的老板使用各种方式降低自己的风险,及时在经济危机期间海外务工仍然是高利润的项目,他们通过向工人收取更高的介绍费用,向工人先手所谓增长经验实际是免费劳力的的实习岗位将风险转嫁给了IT劳工。

印度国内的IT培训机构则以灵活和紧跟潮流著称。他们密切关注海外IT技术的发展,对新技术的学习速度甚至常常超过技术发源地的社区。因为能够快速提供大量掌握新技术的劳动力,印度也逐渐发展出了诸如NIIT这样获得海外大型IT企业授权的培训中心。

印度国内劳力行的复杂之处在于他们往往同时运动猎身、培训甚至IT开发等多项业务。比如一种常见的操作是将等待派往海外的板凳员工作为免费劳力对学员进行授课,向渴望到海外工作的IT劳工出售实习岗位以增加他们的经验,并以超出想象的优惠条件从本地企业承揽IT业务,又利用这些免费实习生开发承接的业务。这样的安排不得不说令人赞叹。

  • 背后的文化基础

印度猎身行业得以组织起来与其文化制度和传统是密不可分的。理工教育、IT培训和海外输出都是需要大量投资,印度在海外IT产业的成功与他们的教育机构,种姓制度,嫁妆制度以及家庭网络密不可分。

印度猎身行业的劳工往往不是出自IIT等公立学校,而是来自私立学校。比如安得拉邦在1995到2000间成立了75所私立工程学院。这些学院的教育都面向西方,志在译名,他们的教材通常都是照搬美国,并且帮助毕业生直接对接海外院校。想这些私立学院的城里和运作都依赖于民间资金,比如仅学费一项就可高达一年20亿卢比。除了私立学院,大量兴起的技术培训学员也遍地开花,除非经济苦难,几乎所有的IT学生在攻读学校课程时都会参加校外的技能培训。

大量的民间盈余被投入高等教育与印度的种姓制度密不可分。印度IT劳工有两大特点主要来自乡村地区和并且主要来自高种姓。这背后的原因是,自印度独立后,高等教育一直被所有中等和上层阶级视为进入稳定的、公共部门的核心渠道。而农村地区由于长期缺乏投资,使得农民们更想通过教育逃离农村。

嫁妆制度是另一个带来资源集中的制度。印度婚姻一般严格限制于种姓内部,跨越种姓的婚姻会备受质疑甚至影响到其兄弟姐妹的婚姻前景,但是婚姻选择空间的扩大使得纯粹的经济计算成为压倒性的考虑。另一方面,印度婚姻对于年轻新娘的偏好导致女性基本不可能接受高等教育,被视作对男方教育儿子所投入资源和向上阶层流动补偿的高昂嫁妆变更有必要。IT行业因为其昂贵的培养成本以及未来的可观收益,所获得的嫁妆往往非常可观。嫁妆往往成为支持IT教育的必备资源,比如很多女方家长会要求双方先结婚然后送男方到海外学习或者工作。家庭网络的存在也使人们能够长期、持续的投入人力资本。比如各个的嫁妆成为弟弟的学费,弟弟使用工资自主各个的学业和在外工作。

除了资源的集中,种姓制度和男女性别歧视实际上提供了大量的廉价劳动力:种姓制度要求这些出身低下的人从事低下的工作并领取非常低下的报酬,家庭中则存在大量的免费劳动的妇女。这些不计报酬的家庭妇女、以及无数的低种姓廉价劳动力实际上为因为IT劳工的价格优势提供了基础。

  • 对本书的评价

《全球猎身》是项飚在牛津大学攻读博士的论文。跟上一步作品《跨越边界的社区》研究浙江村一样,作者仍然将研究的重点对准人口流动和社会变迁。但是明显可以感受到作者在两部作品之间的成熟。无论是结构性还是可读性,本书对前作都是进步巨大。

在阅读这本书的时候,让我感兴趣的除了整个猎身的运行过程,还有印度IT人在客服组多困难时做表现出来巨大的灵活性和现实主义。他们常常让我想起浙江村的居民,在体制的空白和间隙处不断寻求机会。在印度IT劳工进入海外的时候有一些细节让我印象深刻,比如作为技术人员的他们也不擅长沟通,为无法融入白人老板的社交圈子而苦恼。但是时移世易,现在的中国IT移民们作为较为弱势的力量也经受着这样的过程。

当然本书也有所缺憾,首先是作者没有为我们提供印度IT移民到达全世界的全景图,比如通过猎身到达美国和通过其他渠道比如留学和直接招聘到达美国的IT民工的比例分别是多少?另一方面是时效性,从作者的研究到现在已经将近20年,印度移民在IT行业中的地位发生了巨大变化,猎身行业如何应对这些变化,甚至这些变化之后的本质原因是什么目前还是一个巨大的谜团。

Reference

Hiring: The Hidden Job Description

The internal standards we used to hire a candidate is way different from the job description posted on the company’s career website. It could be that the company’s using a standard hiring process with a generic job description, or it could be that the hiring managers intentionally keep the description vague so that we can be flexible in the hiring process. Published or not, we as hiring managers has to be crystal clear about the expectation of the position we are hiring for.

Smart Question use The hidden job description to describe these unpublished internal job description. The hidden job descriptions, unfortunately, will not be clear unless you written them down and validate them with the right principals. For example, not all expectations for the position are equal, some are crucial, some are important, while some are just nice to have.

The first thing SQ suggest us to do is to write down the job descriptions. Then you need to differentiate the crucial skills v.s. important skills. And then you should design your questions around the expectations. The most important piece is to trying to find out whether the candidate is a match for the position.

For example, I would want to hire a tech lead for my own team and hence the following three qualities are important for the person to be successful in this position:

  • Technical leadership

D: The ability to design, plan and organize the tech initiative from the day to day tech decision making to architecture change. Q: Can you describe to me how the project is organized in your current team and your responsibilities in organizing the work?

  • Tech mentorship

D: The ability to mentor and develop the team member’s tech skills as well as unleveling the team’s tech craftsmanship. Q: Can you give me a few examples how you help the team members that at different stages to develop their tech skills?

  • Communication skills

D: The abilities to work with different product and engineering team to drive the various initiatives related to the team. Q: Can you describe to me the challenges you faced when you drive a major initiative?

I would say the tech leadership and communication skills are crucial, while the tech mentorship can be developed and hence I rate it as important.

The hidden job description not only applies to professional recruiting, but also apply to other scenarios like looking for life partner. Not every time our answer to the question of “what is your expectation for your life partner?” is clear and well thought. Most of the time they are vague expectations.

People seeking life partner through online dating app is facing the same challenge as when they search for a job. Each of us have multiple choices while we have very limited time to know each other. The time we can spend with each candidate is very limited and when we are trying to evaluate the candidate, we are also being evaluated. Whether we can effectively find out the possibilities of matching with another person, whether we could present out self clearly to hopefully send out the right signals is a challenge.

The framework presented in SQ hence can also be applied to the dating interviews. First write down the hidden job description, then find out the what’s going to be crucial for you and design your question around that. In the mean time, present your self clearly during the dating to help the other person understand your expectations faster.

However, dating interview is different from job interview, even if a candidate matches with all our expectation, it is not guaranteed that we would develop the relationship with him/her, as passion something that we can’t define ore measure, is still the driven factor in establishing the relationship.

《安娜卡列尼娜》出场

一直要到第十章,托尔斯泰才让这本大部头的主角安娜第一次出现。

安娜的哥哥奥勃朗斯基是个贵族青年,和妻子陶丽结婚八年,育有一子。一家人住在莫斯科。但奥勃朗斯基最近遇到了麻烦,他和家庭女教师出轨的事被妻子吉娣发现了。陶丽威胁要离婚,奥勃朗斯基没有办法,只好请开园在圣彼得堡的妹妹安娜来帮忙。

全书的前十章一直在介绍莫斯科贵族青年们的生活,包括列文,吉娣还有弗伦斯基,也就是安娜后来的恋人,之间的三角恋情。主角们悠闲得过着生活,只在间或提及安娜即将到访,要为她安排住的房间等事。

安娜和丈夫卡列宁生活在圣彼得堡,也已结婚八年,育有一子。安娜这次是打着看望嫂子的名义来莫斯科的。

站在托翁的立场,我们应当如何安排主角安娜的第一场戏呢?首先她这件事情的结果不能过于戏剧化,失去控制的清洁既会打乱读者的注意力,也会削弱安娜的形象。其次安娜处理这件事的方式不管要赢得读者认同还要让读者敬佩。如果第一场戏主角不能赢得我们的喜爱,那么这个人物可以说是塑造失败了。

我们再来看看这个问题的真实处境。陶丽的情绪分为两层:当然这是我们在陶丽和安娜对话的过程中跟安娜一起发现的。首先是羞辱,作为一个贵族千金,她居然输给了一个家庭女教师,她怀疑丈夫是看上了对方的年轻貌美,在背后甚至在一起作弄自己。其次是被欺骗。结婚八年,看来恩爱的丈夫却在背着自己出轨,她不知道这八年的青春要如何交付。

安娜首先解决课第一个问题。她劝陶丽道,这些人在外寻欢作乐不过时逢场作戏,他们把这些女人当作猎物,只享受的手的快乐却从不在心里真的看的起她们,他们仍然把自己的婚姻视作最神圣的存在。因此,奥勃朗斯基断然不会跟一个家庭女教师一起作弄自己的妻子。

第二个问题比较棘手。我们不能诉诸道德,因为奥勃朗斯基犯错在先。也不能诉诸现实,比如劝陶丽想想离婚后的处境还有以后如何抚养孩子等等。因为这会让安娜显得市侩,遭读者厌恶。那么应该怎么解决第二个问题呢?

安娜首先是表示同情,虽然她也承认自己并不能完全感同身受。然后她问出了关键性的问题:你还爱他吗?安娜给了陶丽思考的时间。在安娜看来,如果还爱他,如果还有足够多的爱让你原谅他那么就应该原谅他,并且从此不在提及此事。

陶丽思忖之后认同了安娜的说法,也许她是她发现自己仍然爱着丈夫,也许是她冷静下来了只是需要找个台阶下,但无论如何,这个说法是陶丽只能接近的解释。因为继续下去是为了爱而不是别的什么,这些年的青春也就没有白白托付。

我们不知道安娜在那一刻是不是真诚的,还是她只是运用自己的智慧找到了最合适的说法。但无论如何,安娜的这番话表明了自己爱情至上的想法,还有她充满洞察力的头脑。用这样素诉诸感情的方式,安娜成功的化解了这场危机。托尔斯泰用这样的手法让安娜这个人物立刻鲜活生动起来了。

改善学习方法:2020篇

学习和思考是我们唯一的工具。我们一生的时间非常有限,二零一九年我总共写了五十三篇文章,平均每周一篇,按照这个速度十年时间我也只能写五百三十篇文章,也就是五百本书左右的量级。这还是假设我可以持续按这样的时间投入。如果将这五百本书看作输入,我当然希望可以获得最多的产出。而从输入到产出,唯一能控制的恐怕就是学习方法了。提高学习效率恐怕是个永恒的主题,建立和改进学习方法需要花时间,甚至维持现有的效率都需要花时间。我打算将对学习方法的总结和思考写成一个系列,每年总结和更新一次,至少维持现有的效率不降低。

  • 尝试不同的学习策略

学习策略的选择和其他选择相比试错成本极小。我们害怕作出改变,除了惯性,最主要的愿意是害怕其中的风险,比如在哪个城市生活,选择哪家公司等等。尝试不同的学习策略几乎毫无成本和损失,因为一切都在个人的掌控当中,而且学习策略之间的效果差距在短时间内并不显著。想想看,总没有哪种学习方式让你一无所获吧?学习策略包括如何确定学习的主题,使用什么形式学习,在什么时间学习,如何衡量学习的成果等等方面。

  • 尝试的心态比作出承诺要容易得多

抱着尝试的心态去做一件事比下定决心要做出改变要容易得多。“接下来一个星期不如试试早上学习”比”我从现在开始要每天早上起来学习“听起来要轻松容易得多,“试着按照金字塔原理的方式写作”比“我要按照金字塔原理努力提高我的写作水平”简直不是同一件事。我们的承诺越大,作出改变所需要的心理成本就越大,改变就越难以发生。轻装前进。

  • 寻找针对性的奖励回路

热情也许可是使我们保持短暂的投入,但是没有奖励的机制事情是无法坚持下去的。我们和巴甫洛夫的狗一样,都是条件反射的动物。无论对于自己还是他人,当我们想要让某个行为出现或者保持下去的时候要需要多想想这种行为的奖励机制是什么。要使你的伴侣持续的爱你,要问问她为什么爱你,而你如何不断增强这些方面的投入。

博客和写作是我给自己的第一套奖励系统。这套循环的好处简直数不胜数。写作是一个智力跋涉的过程,翻山越岭之后是智力的满足。写作过程中还是是可以体验到完全投入、忘记时间的心流的感觉。总结和复述带来知识上的收获,整理和表达则不断强化我的表达能力,博客文章的积累本身更是一种可视化的成果衡量系统,在一件事情上简直如此之久更可以带来自尊的提升和克服更多困难的自信。

仅仅有一套奖励回路是不足以应对所有学习任务的。单一的奖励回路会强化某些方面的知识和能力,比如社科性的知识积累,但是对于技能的联系和应用本身并无帮助。为了让奖励系统服务于学习本身而不是相反,必须在学习的各个阶段,针对不同的学习主题开发奖励回路。

  • 建立多样的的成果评价系统

不同主题的学习需要使用不同的方式来衡量收获。能够将学到的知识清晰的表达出来固然是一种能力,但是对于技能的提升,仅仅知道技能的使用原则还不够,必须找到更加系统可行的方式对这些主题的进展进行衡量。

  • 按照主体研究式地学习

过去两年的学习主要是按照书本为单位的甚至是以章节为单位的。这样的学习方式的问题在于,容易缺少深度并且受限于书本的结构。缺少深度是因为我们无法对知识进行横向比较,缺少批判。每次学习一种理论当然更容易掌握,但是在同一个主题往往存在许多完全不同的理论,如果对这一领域内的同类理论缺乏研究会导致陷入盲目的实践当中。

按照主题学习必将会更加困难和费力,但是这是从广度走向深度必须经历的过程。这样的过程非常类似于进行研究,我们需要首先确定研究的主题和方向,然后耐心阅读材料,交叉验证,进行总结然后依次推荐。

  • 场景化技能学习的目标

知识的学习也许可以采用自顶向下的方法,技能的学习最好是以拼图的方式进行:从最具体的最场景化的能力开始学些。比如说,与其说要提高英语口语,不如说我想提高在会议当中讲解关于我们公司业务的时候的口语能力;与其说我想打好羽毛球,不如说我想要在对方使用前场高调球的时候从后场赶回并有效接住。场景化的目标让我们的技能训练更加容易执行,更加容易衡量进展,也更加容易获得满足:及时奖励好过沿长奖励。

场景化的目标也迫使我们思考一项技能的组成结构。比如管理能力可以细分为沟通能力,绩效管理能力,指导和授权能力等等。而沟通能力又可以细分为关系构建沟通能力,寻求和提供反馈的能力,公众演讲能力,冲突沟通能力等等,在细分之下,关系构建能力又可以分为在于员工一对一的时候构建信任关系的能力,在非正式场合与员工建立感情的能力等等。这样金字塔式的演绎可以让你找到最基础的可以直接训练的元能力。另一方面,场景化也更有助于你寻求指导和寻找例子。

  • 有效利用互联网

从互联网转向书本的主要原因是互联网上的内容过于琐碎,无法形成体系。但这主要是因为我们过于依赖互联网上的内容推荐,比如微博知乎公众号等等。碎片化的阅读当然不能带来很多收获,但是如果有目的的进行研究则完全不同。我们完全可以使用不同的方式,比如维基百科作为入门,youtube上的相关讲解作为介绍,然后配合深度的阅读和对于相关书籍的评论,就可以较为充分的了解这些领域的知识。

  • 向身边的人学习

如果要学习一项技能或者技巧,从你身边的人开始学习是最有效果的。如何有效从身边的人学习?确立你想要学习的目标技能,注意最好是场景化的技能,场景化的目标相当于帮助我们的大脑打开了一个分类过滤器,当我们想要学习的时候必须首先能够观察到对应的技能运用场景,这样当目标出现的时候我们就可以更快的捕捉到。在捕捉到对应的场景之后,我们要及时进行观察和记录,比如使用录音机进行录制。事后我们需要进行场景化的总结,比如学习的目标所面临的而具体场景是什么,他当时的出境有哪些约束,它是如何处理这些约束条件的。下一步联想自己将要处理的场景,试图学习和应用。最后是寻求反馈,可以是主动向他人要求反馈,另外我发现通过录制自己的表现我们往往会对自己的能力产生全新的认识和评价,这样自足的反馈更容易操作。

  • 善用他人的失败

查理芒格的人生经验之一是从他人的失败当中学习。我们不仅要从成功的榜样身上学习,还要从失败的例子当中学习。