The Choice Of Words: Introductory

From “The Complete Plain Words”.

The goal of writing professional document is to convey our meaning without ambiguity and without giving unnecessary trouble to our readers. To achieve this goal, we should follow the following principles:

  • Use no more words than are necessary to express your meanings, for it you use more you are likely to obscure it and to tire your reader.
  • User familiar words rather than the far-fetched if they express your meaning equality well, for familiar are more likely to be readily understood.
  • Use words with a precise meaning rather than those that are vague, for they will obviously serve better to make your meaning clear, and in particular prefer concrete words to abstract, for they are more likely to have a precise meaning.

To clarify, the far fetched words are by definition “recherche” words, and are thought to give distinction.

However, why do people still prefer complexity to simplicity, far-fetched word to the familiar word? The following are the potential reasons:

  • For officials, there is a temptation to cling too long to outworn words and phrase.
  • Many people retain in maturity the adolescent’s love for the long word.
  • It is sometimes dangerous to be precise, such as in modern politics.
  • Cautionary cliches are used automatically without thought of what they mean.
  • There is often a need for caution, and it is a temptation to hedging and obscurity.
  • What is vague is less likely to give offense, as we believe vague is less alarming; or the natural word may be rejected because it has acquired unpleasant associations.
  • People love of show off.
  • Because of laziness, clear thinking is hard work.

Business Management: Operations As a Competitive Weapon

This article introduces the terminology used in operation management.

  • What is operations management?

The operation management is the systematic design, direciton and control of processes that transform input into services and products for the internal, and external customers.

  • Why study operation management?

Understanding the operation management helps you understand how the process you are a part of fits into the overall fabric of the business, and helps you get prepared to manage a department or a particular process in your discipline. As a manager, it is also critical for you to understand how your business partner works. Operation management helps you understand how different functions in the business work together.

  • What’s the goal of a operations manager?

The operations manager’s decisions should reflect the corporate strategy. The plns, policies and actiosn should be lined to those in other fnctional areas to support the firms goal and objectives.

  • What is process?

Every processes has a sub process, which is often called a nested process. For example, a planning processes on the department level often has subprocesses on the team level.

  • Why process view helps us better understand how the firm works?

Process view of the firm provides a much more relevant picture of the way firms actually work. Department or organization view only gives you a static view of the firm, while the process help you understand how the work and information flows through the organization. An organization is only as effective as its processes.

  • What is customer of the process?

Customers: process often provide outputs to customers. Some are external customer, who is either an end user or an intermediary buying the firm’s finished services or products. Some are internal customers, one or more employees or processes that rely on the input from other employees or processes in order to perform their work.

  • What is the supplier of the process?

Every process relies on the suppliers. There are external suppliers who are business or individuals that provide resources, services, products and materials for the firm’s short-term and long term needs. And there are internal suppliers who are employees or processes that supply important information or materials to a firm’s processes.

  • What is service and manufacturing processes and why are they important?

The service and manufacturing processes are the two major types of processes. The two are different from each other at the nature and the degree of customer contact. Manufacturing processes convert materials into goods that have a physical form we call products, while service processes tend to produce intangible, perishable outputs. On the other hand, services processes tend to have a higher degree of customer contact, ,while manufacture process tend to have less.

  • What is the value chain?

The value chain is an interrelated services of processes produces a service or products to the satisfaction of customers. Process must add value for customer.

  • Why value chain is important for operation management?

The managers should examine the processes from the perspective of the value to understand the effectiveness of the them.

  • What are the basic step of decision making?

First, recognize and clearly define the problem, then collect the information needed to analyze possible alternatives, next choose the most attractive alternative then implement the chosen alternative.

  • What is strategy decision and what is the tactic decision?

Strategy decisions are less structured and have long term consequence, tactical decisions are more structured, routine and repetitive and have short term consequences.

  • How do you leverage the strategical decision and the tactical decision?

You design new processes that have strategic implications and deeply involved in the development and organization of value chain linking external suppliers and external customers to the firm’s internal processes. Manager also involves in the tactical decision that supports the strategical decisions, including process improvement and staffing plans etc.

  • How does the global trade change the operation management?

Operation managers must now view customers, suppliers, facility locations and competitions in global terms. They need to design the operation process by involving the materials and services from all over the world. One major factor spurred the need for sound global strategies is the comparative cost advantage. For example, china for manufacture and India for services as they are sources for low cost but skilled labor.

《The One Minute Manager》Book Review

Instead of summarizing the book, I organized my learnings from the book in Q&A format to highlight how these hidden theories in the book could be applied to our daily management practice.

Part I: Book Summary

  • What is the one-minute goal setting?

Agree on your goal and see what good behavior looks like, write out each of your goals on a single sheet of paper using less than 250 words. Read and re-read each goal, which requires only a minute or so each time you do it. Take a minute every once in a while out of your day to look at your performance and see whether or not your behavior matches your goal.

  • Why do we need one-minute goal setting?

People are not motivated because they don’t know what their goal is. Most managers know what they want their people to do, but they don’t bother to tell their people in a way that they would understand. Instead, they assume they should know.

However, the one-minute goal setting only works for winners and those who have potentials. They know how to achieve these goals. So the manager’s more important job is to bring in the best person to the team.

  • What is the one-minute praising?

Tell people upfront that you are going to let them know how they are doing. Praise people immediately, tell people what they did right, and be specific. Tell people how good you fell about what they did right, and how it helps the organization and the other people who work here. Stop for a moment of silence to let them feel how good you feel. Encourage them to do more of the same. Shake hands or touch people in a way that makes it clear.

  • Why does one-minute praise work?

It’s important to help people understand how well they are doing. The number one motivator of people is feedback on results. The most important thing in training one to become a winner is to catch them doing something right.

We don’t expect people to do things right from the beginning, but with coaching and other help, they can gradually moving them towards the desired behavior.

  • What is the one-minute reprimand?

Tell people beforehand that you are going to let them know how they are doing and is no uncertain terms. In the first half of the reprimand, reprimand people immediately. Tell people what they did wrong and be specific. Tell people how you feel about what they did wrong and in no uncertain terms. Stop for a few seconds of uncomfortable silence to let them feel how you feel. On the second half, shake hands, or touch them in a way that lets them know you are honestly on their side, remind them how much you value them. Reaffirm that you think well of them but not their performance in this situation.

  • Why does one-minute reprimand work?

The one-minute reprimand works because it makes sure people hear the feedback. People become defensive and can’t hear the feedback if they are attacked or if they feel you are not with them. The one-minute reprimand asks us to focus on the behavior instead of attacking the people and always make sure people know they are still valuable.

Part II: Hidden Management Theories

  • What’s your primary goal as a people manager?

A good people manager makes people work best with each other, they produce valuable results and feel good about themselves, the organization and the other people with whom they work.

  • What is “leave alone-zap”?

“Leave alone-zap” is you leave a person alone, expecting a good performance from them, and when you don’t get it, you zap them. The end result of this style is people do as little as possible.

  • When would people get motivated?

People get motivated for many reasons. But when get motivated, they feel good about themselves. Helping people to feel good about themselves is key to getting more done.

  • People-driven or result-driven, what type of manager do you think you are?

Many thought managers either cares about results or people. Result caring managers seemed to be tough and autocratic, while people-driven managers look nice and democratic. However, in order to be effective, you need to care about both.

  • How to help people find out the solution by themselves?

Ask the team to describe to you the problems they encountered in observable and measurable terms. Sometimes people focused on attitudes or feelings, which is not helpful for clarifying the problem. Then ask them to describe what they would like to be happening, and work with them to analyze what may have caused the discrepancy between the actual and desired.

  • How to explain your intention of sharing the feedback with the team?

It is important to let people know that sharing feedback is to help them become more successful. First, let them know that it helps them understand how they are doing in their work better, then, let them know that you wanted them to succeeded and be a big help to the organization, and to enjoy their work.

  • How do you explain to the team that your interests are aligned?

Explain to the team that your success depends on their success so they understand that your interest is aligned and you are with them. Explain to them that the more consistently successful your people are, the higher you rise in the organization.

  • What do you do if your team performed well however things are not going well?

Responds to people where they are, not where you are, still praise people even when you annoyed by other things if they’ve done well.

  • How to not discourage people when sharing constructive feedback?

The key is to separate the behavior and the people. Remember that when you give constructive feedback only focus on the behavior instead of the person. Always remind people that they are valuable and worthwhile?

  • Why separating people’s behavior and they as a person is so important?

Because we are managing people, not their behavior. People are more complicated, they will become defensive if they are attacked. Your power of management style comes from you care about people. Your reprimand would not work if the people don’t feel that you are with them.

  • Do you give positive feedback to the team? Do you think it is important?

Positive feedback is as important as constructive feedback. One mistake many managers made is to focus on the negative feedback, they set the goal and wait for the people to fail.

  • Is management manipulate people?

No, manipulation is getting people to do something they are either not aware of or don’t agree to. That is why it is important to let each person know upfront what you are doing and why.



对于这些问题,我们还有印度移民通常将他们归因于:英文教育环境造成的语言优势,长期殖民地处境带来的文化相似形,印度人对于数学和工程的热情。以拥有本科以上学历的比例计算,美国的印度裔移民的教育成就确实远超所有族裔1 。但无论是语言文化的解释还是教育程度度的解释都过于粗粒度,许多问题仍然十分模糊:理工人才的培养和海外输出是一个昂贵投资,经济落后的印度是如何将这么多人培养成工程师并送到海外的?IT人才输出的产业是如何运作的?项飚在《全球猎身:世界信息产业和印度的技术劳工》一书当中为我们部分解答了这些问题。

印度移民们通过多种方式走向世界,项飚在本书中所讨论的是印度独有的猎身行业:印度人在全世界各地开办咨询公司(body shops,劳力行),从印度招收IT工人,然后根据客户企业的项目需要把这些劳动力提供给客户。猎身过程和正规的劳工输出有所不同:劳力行在没有明确工作需求的情况下用临时工作签证将劳工送至海外并闲置在板凳上以等待机会,劳力行并不单独行动而是和不同规模的职业代理公司合作将劳工输出到IT企业。项飚认为这些不同的背后是全球IT产业发展的新逻辑。

  • 猎身的政治经济学背景




  • 猎身经济的运作方式






  • 背后的文化基础






  • 对本书的评价





Hiring: The Hidden Job Description

The internal standards we used to hire a candidate is way different from the job description posted on the company’s career website. It could be that the company’s using a standard hiring process with a generic job description, or it could be that the hiring managers intentionally keep the description vague so that we can be flexible in the hiring process. Published or not, we as hiring managers has to be crystal clear about the expectation of the position we are hiring for.

Smart Question use The hidden job description to describe these unpublished internal job description. The hidden job descriptions, unfortunately, will not be clear unless you written them down and validate them with the right principals. For example, not all expectations for the position are equal, some are crucial, some are important, while some are just nice to have.

The first thing SQ suggest us to do is to write down the job descriptions. Then you need to differentiate the crucial skills v.s. important skills. And then you should design your questions around the expectations. The most important piece is to trying to find out whether the candidate is a match for the position.

For example, I would want to hire a tech lead for my own team and hence the following three qualities are important for the person to be successful in this position:

  • Technical leadership

D: The ability to design, plan and organize the tech initiative from the day to day tech decision making to architecture change. Q: Can you describe to me how the project is organized in your current team and your responsibilities in organizing the work?

  • Tech mentorship

D: The ability to mentor and develop the team member’s tech skills as well as unleveling the team’s tech craftsmanship. Q: Can you give me a few examples how you help the team members that at different stages to develop their tech skills?

  • Communication skills

D: The abilities to work with different product and engineering team to drive the various initiatives related to the team. Q: Can you describe to me the challenges you faced when you drive a major initiative?

I would say the tech leadership and communication skills are crucial, while the tech mentorship can be developed and hence I rate it as important.

The hidden job description not only applies to professional recruiting, but also apply to other scenarios like looking for life partner. Not every time our answer to the question of “what is your expectation for your life partner?” is clear and well thought. Most of the time they are vague expectations.

People seeking life partner through online dating app is facing the same challenge as when they search for a job. Each of us have multiple choices while we have very limited time to know each other. The time we can spend with each candidate is very limited and when we are trying to evaluate the candidate, we are also being evaluated. Whether we can effectively find out the possibilities of matching with another person, whether we could present out self clearly to hopefully send out the right signals is a challenge.

The framework presented in SQ hence can also be applied to the dating interviews. First write down the hidden job description, then find out the what’s going to be crucial for you and design your question around that. In the mean time, present your self clearly during the dating to help the other person understand your expectations faster.

However, dating interview is different from job interview, even if a candidate matches with all our expectation, it is not guaranteed that we would develop the relationship with him/her, as passion something that we can’t define ore measure, is still the driven factor in establishing the relationship.















  • 尝试不同的学习策略


  • 尝试的心态比作出承诺要容易得多


  • 寻找针对性的奖励回路




  • 建立多样的的成果评价系统


  • 按照主体研究式地学习



  • 场景化技能学习的目标



  • 有效利用互联网


  • 向身边的人学习


  • 善用他人的失败




  • 内在有偏差的样本


  • 精心挑选的平均数字


  • 没有披露的数据


  • 毫无意义的工作


  • 惊人的统计图形


  • 平面图形


  • 不相匹配的资料


  • 相关关系与因果关系


  • 如何进行统计操纵


  • 对统计资料的五个问题